GEN-1 immunotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer

Premal H. Thaker, Nicholas Borys, Jason Fewell, Khursheed Anwer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


GEN-1 is a gene-based immunotherapy, comprising a human IL-12 gene expression plasmid and a synthetic plasmid delivery system, delivered intraperitoneally (ip.) to produce local and persistent levels of a pleiotropic immunocytokine, IL-12, at the tumor site in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The goal of local and persistent IL-12 delivery is to remodel the highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment to favor immune stimulation while avoiding serious systemic toxicities, a major limitation of recombinant IL-12 therapy. Safe and sustained local production of IL-12 and related immunocytokines at the tumor site could produce potentially more favorable immunological changes in the tumor microenvironment and antitumor responses than a bolus systemic delivery of recombinant IL-12. Treatment safety, clinical benefits and biological activity of GEN-1 ip. in patients with ovarian cancer and in representative animal models are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-438
Number of pages18
JournalFuture Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • GEN-1
  • IL-12
  • immunocytokine
  • immunotherapy
  • ovarian cancer
  • plasmid vector


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