Gastric neuroendocrine tumours from long-term proton pump inhibitor users are indolent tumours with good prognosis

Vincent Q.H. Trinh, Chanjuan Shi, Changqing Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Aims: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely used medications in the United States. Most PPI users have persistent hypergastrinaemia during treatment. However, gastric neuroendocrine tumours diagnosed in long-term PPI users are rarely reported. Their clinicopathological features and prognosis are not characterised. It remains unclear whether or not they can be classified as Type III sporadic tumours. Methods and results: We retrospectively characterised 66 gastric neuroendocrine tumours from patients without atrophic gastritis and gastrinoma from two tertiary care medical centres, including 38 tumours in patients who had used PPIs for at least 1 year and 28 tumours from patients without long-term PPI use (control group, Type III tumours). Compared to controls, tumours from long-term PPI users tended to be in the pT1–2 category (98% versus 79%, P = 0.09) and less often invaded the serosa (3% versus 18%, P = 0.08) or lymphovascular spaces (11% versus 32%, P = 0.06). Using Kaplan–Meier analysis, long-term PPI users had significantly longer overall survival than controls (P = 0.035). While three control patients developed distant metastasis and seven died, long-term PPI users were without distant metastasis (P = 0.06) or death (P = 0.002) during follow-up. However, five long-term PPI users developed additional gastric neuroendocrine tumour(s), while none of the controls did (P = 0.07). Conclusions: Our results show that gastric neuroendocrine tumours of long-term PPI users are probably less aggressive compared to Type III sporadic tumours and have an indolent disease course. Our findings support the classification of gastric neuroendocrine tumours in long-term PPI users as a separate subtype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)865-876
Number of pages12
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • chronic atrophic gastritis
  • enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia
  • hypergastrinaemia
  • multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
  • pernicious anaemia
  • proton pump inhibitor
  • Zollinger–Ellison syndrome


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