Gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10) is a member of the CXC family of chemokines. By differential mRNA display, we have demonstrated the upregulation of IP10 in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected mouse hearts. Functional characterization of the IP10 gene in IP10-transfected Tet-On HeLa cells has found that IP10 induced cell apoptosis and inhibited viral replication. In the characterization of the IP10-induced apoptotic pathway, we found that overexpression of IP10 upregulated p53 and resulted in altered expression of p53-responsive genes such as the p21Cip1, p27 kip1, NF-κB, Bax, and PUMA genes and the mitochondrial translocation of Bax. However, transduction of the IP10 cells with adenovirus expressing dominant negative p53 not only ablated p53-triggered gene expression but also abolished IP10-induced apoptosis and restored CVB3 replication to the control levels. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which IP10 inhibits viral replication through the induction of host cell death via a p53-mediated apoptotic pathway. We also found that constantly high-level expression of p53 in these tumor cells is attributed to the IP10-induced suppression of human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogene expression. Taken together, these data reveal not only a previously unrecognized link between chemokine IP10 and p53 in antiviral defense but also a mechanism by which IP10 inhibits tumor cell growth.