Gamma-Butyrolactone Overdose Potentially Complicated by Co-Ingestion of Industrial Solvent N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone

Jonathan Melamed, Roy Gerona, Paul D. Blanc, Paul Takamoto, Stephanie Conner, Robert Goodnough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is misused as an intoxicant, either alone or concurrently with other substances. Because GHB is illegal, the precursor chemicals 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone are also misused for the same effect, either through pre-ingestion alteration or endogenous metabolism to GHB. We describe a case of a 50-year-old man with a history of polysubstance misuse who experienced an overdose of GHB from gamma-butyrolactone ingestion. The patient also co-ingested a common industrial solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). This co-ingested substance raised theoretical concern of metabolism to a GHB congener, underscoring that the emergence of new psychoactive substance use patterns requires ongoing vigilance and toxicologic confirmation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-324
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Analytical Toxicology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021


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