G protein-coupled estrogen receptor agonist improves cerebral microvascular function after hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in male and female rats

Takahiro Murata, Hans H. Dietrich, Chuanxi Xiang, Ralph G. Dacey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and Purpose-Reduced risk and severity of stroke in adult females are thought to depend on normal levels of endogenous estrogen, which is a known neuro- and vasoprotective agent in experimental cerebral ischemia. Recently, a novel G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, formerly GPR30) has been identified and may mediate the vasomotor and -protective effects of estrogen. However, the signaling mechanisms associated with GPER in the cerebral microcirculation remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of GPER-mediated vasoreactivity and also its vasoprotective effect after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/RO) injury. Methods-Rat cerebral penetrating arterioles from both sexes were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized. Vessel diameters were recorded by computer-aided videomicroscopy. To investigate vasomotor mechanism of the GPER agonist (G-1), several inhibitors with or without endothelial impairment were tested. Ischemia/reperfusion injury was simulated using H/RO. Vasomotor responses to adenosine triphophate after H/RO were measured with or without G-1 and compared with controls. Results-G-1 produced a vasodilatory response, which was partially dependent on endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) but not arachidonic acid cascades and endothelial hyperpolarization factor. Attenuation of G-1-vasodilation by the NO synthase inhibitor and endothelium-impairment were greater in vessels from female than male animals. G-1 treatment after H/RO injury fully restored arteriolar dilation to adenosine triphophate compared with controls. Conclusions-GPER agonist elicited dilation, which was partially caused by endothelial NO pathway and induced by direct relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Further, GPER agonist restored vessel function of arterioles after H/RO injury and may play an important role in the ability of estrogen to protect the cerebrovasculature against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)779-785
Number of pages7
JournalStroke
Volume44
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013

Keywords

  • Brain hypoxia
  • GPER protein
  • Recovery of function
  • Sex differences

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