Neutrophils are released from the bone marrow in a regulated fashion to maintain homeostatic levels in the blood and to respond to physiological stresses, including infection. We show that under basal conditions granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an essential regulator of neutrophil release from the bone marrow. Nonredundant signals generated by the membrane-proximal 87 amino acids of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) are sufficient to mediate this response. Surprisingly, G-CSFR expression on neutrophils is neither necessary nor sufficient for their mobilization from the bone marrow, suggesting that G-CSF induces neutrophil mobilization indirectly through the generation of trans-acting signals. Evidence is provided suggesting that downregulation of stromal cell-derived factor 1 expression in the bone marrow may represent such a signal.