Background-Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) induces β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) desensitization, but mechanisms proximal to the receptor in contributing to cardiac dysfunction are not known. Methods and Results- Two different proinflammatory transgenic mouse models with cardiac overexpression of myotrophin (a prohypertrophic molecule) or TNFα showed that TNFα alone is sufficient to mediate βAR desensitization as measured by cardiac adenylyl cyclase activity. M-mode echocardiography in these mouse models showed cardiac dysfunction paralleling βAR desensitization independent of sympathetic overdrive. TNFα-mediated βAR desensitization that precedes cardiac dysfunction is associated with selective upregulation of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in both mouse models. In vitro studies in β2AR-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells showed significant βAR desensitization, GRK2 upregulation, and recruitment to the βAR complex following TNFα. Interestingly, inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase abolished GRK2-mediated βAR phosphorylation and GRK2 recruitment on TNFα. Furthermore, TNFα-mediated βAR phosphorylation was not blocked with βAR antagonist propranolol. Additionally, TNFα administration in transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of Gβγ-sequestering peptide βARK-ct could not prevent βAR desensitization or cardiac dysfunction showing that GRK2 recruitment to the βAR is Gβγ independent. Small interfering RNA knockdown of GRK2 resulted in the loss of TNFα-mediated βAR phosphorylation. Consistently, cardiomyocytes from mice with cardiac-specific GRK2 ablation normalized the TNFα-mediated loss in contractility, showing that TNFα-induced βAR desensitization is GRK2 dependent. Conclusions-TNFα-induced βAR desensitization is mediated by GRK2 and is independent of Gβγ, uncovering a hitherto unknown cross-talk between TNFα and βAR function, providing the underpinnings of inflammation-mediated cardiac dysfunction.
- G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2
- heart failure
- phosphoinositide 3-kinase
- tumor necrosis factor-α
- tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2
- β-adrenergic receptor