Future Forms of Immunotherapy and Immunomodulators in Allergic Disease

Tran Hoai T. Nguyen, Jeffrey R. Stokes, Thomas B. Casale

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Future forms of immunotherapy, particularly toll-like receptor agonists, have shown promising results in animal models of allergic disease although most have failed to translate into successful human clinical trials. These results have helped to elucidate the pleotropic roles of cytokines as well as the diverse phenotypes of allergic diseases, particularly asthma. The goals of these therapies are to improve patient symptoms and quality of life, to prevent and favorably alter disease course, and to maintain a good risk/benefit ratio along with a cost-effective profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-365
Number of pages23
JournalImmunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2011


  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Asthma
  • Cytokine
  • Immunomodulator
  • Immunotherapy


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