Functional indications for upper eyelid ptosis and blepharoplasty surgery: A report by the American academy of ophthalmology

Kenneth V. Cahill, Elizabeth A. Bradley, Dale R. Meyer, Philip L. Custer, David E. Holck, Marcus M. Marcet, Louise A. Mawn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the functional indications and outcomes for blepharoplasty and blepharoptosis repair by assessing functional preoperative impairment and surgical results. Methods: Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were conducted on July 24, 2008, with no age or date restrictions, and they were limited to articles published in English. These searches retrieved 1147 citations; 87 studies were reviewed in full text, and 13 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence analysis. Results: The 13 studies reported the functional effects or treatment results of simulated ptosis; several types of blepharoptosis repair, including conjunctiva-Mller's muscle resection, frontalis suspension, and external levator resection; and upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Conclusions: Repair of blepharoptosis and upper eyelid dermatochalasis provides significant improvement in vision, peripheral vision, and quality of life activities. Preoperative indicators of improvement include margin reflex distance 1 (MRD1) of 2 mm or less, superior visual field loss of at least 12 degrees or 24%, down-gaze ptosis impairing reading and other close-work activities, a chin-up backward head tilt due to visual axis obscuration, symptoms of discomfort or eye strain due to droopy lids, central visual interference due to upper eyelid position, and patient self-reported functional impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2510-2517
Number of pages8
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011


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