Fully integrated parity–time-symmetric electronics

Weidong Cao, Changqing Wang, Weijian Chen, Song Hu, Hua Wang, Lan Yang, Xuan Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Harnessing parity–time symmetry with balanced gain and loss profiles has created a variety of opportunities in electronics from wireless energy transfer to telemetry sensing and topological defect engineering. However, existing implementations often employ ad hoc approaches at low operating frequencies and are unable to accommodate large-scale integration. Here we report a fully integrated realization of parity–time symmetry in a standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process technology. Our work demonstrates salient parity–time symmetry features such as phase transition as well as the ability to manipulate broadband microwave generation and propagation beyond the limitations encountered by existing schemes. The system shows 2.1 times the bandwidth and 30% noise reduction compared to conventional microwave generation in the oscillatory mode, and displays large non-reciprocal microwave transport from 2.75 to 3.10 GHz in the non-oscillatory mode due to enhanced nonlinearities. This approach could enrich integrated circuit design methodology beyond well-established performance limits and enable the use of scalable integrated circuit technology to study topological effects in high-dimensional non-Hermitian systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)262-268
Number of pages7
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Fully integrated parity–time-symmetric electronics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this