Fructose consumption from different food sources and cardiometabolic biomarkers: cross-sectional associations in US men and women

Xinyi Li, Hee Kyung Joh, Jinhee Hur, Mingyang Song, Xuehong Zhang, Yin Cao, Kana Wu, Edward L. Giovannucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Previous studies on the relationship between fructose intake and cardiometabolic biomarkers have yielded inconsistent results, and the metabolic effects of fructose are likely to vary across food sources such as fruit versus sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Objectives: We aimed to examine associations of fructose from 3 major sources (SSB, fruit juice, and fruit) with 14 insulinemic/glycemic, inflammatory, and lipid markers. Methods: We utilized cross-sectional data from 6858 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 15,400 women in NHS, and 19,456 women in NHSII who were free of type 2 diabetes, CVDs, and cancer at blood draw. Fructose intake was assessed via a validated FFQ. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the percentage differences of biomarker concentrations according to fructose intake. Results: We found a 20 g/d increase in total fructose intake was associated with 1.5%– 1.9% higher concentrations of proinflammatory markers plus 3.5% lower adiponectin, as well as 5.9% higher TG/HDL cholesterol ratio. Unfavorable profiles of most biomarkers were only associated with fructose from SSB and juice. In contrast, fruit fructose was associated with lower concentrations of C-peptide, CRP, IL-6, leptin, and total cholesterol. Substituting 20 g/d fruit fructose for SSB fructose was associated with 10.1% lower C-peptide, 2.7%–14.5% lower proinflammatory markers and 1.8%–5.2% lower blood lipids. Conclusions: Beverage fructose intake was associated with adverse profiles of multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)490-498
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • fructose
  • fruit
  • fruit juice
  • glycemic control
  • inflammation
  • insulin
  • lipids
  • sugar-sweetened beverages


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