From Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators to Biochemical Sensors

Médéric Loyez, Maxwell Adolphson, Jie Liao, Lan Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Optical biosensors are frontrunners for the rapid and real-time detection of analytes, particularly for low concentrations. Among them, whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have recently attracted a growing focus due to their robust optomechanical features and high sensitivity, measuring down to single binding events in small volumes. In this review, we provide a broad overview of WGM sensors along with critical advice and additional “tips and tricks” to make them more accessible to both biochemical and optical communities. Their structures, fabrication methods, materials, and surface functionalization chemistries are discussed. We propose this reflection under a pedagogical approach to describe and explain these biochemical sensors with a particular focus on the most recent achievements in the field. In addition to highlighting the advantages of WGM sensors, we also discuss and suggest strategies to overcome their current limitations, leaving room for further development as practical tools in various applications. We aim to provide new insights and combine different knowledge and perspectives to advance the development of the next generation of WGM biosensors. With their unique advantages and compatibility with different sensing modalities, these biosensors have the potential to become major game changers for biomedical and environmental monitoring, among many other relevant target applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2440-2470
Number of pages31
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 28 2023


  • Biochemical sensors
  • Biosensing
  • Microbottle
  • Microbubble
  • Microring
  • Microsphere
  • Microtoroid
  • Optical resonators
  • Optofluidics
  • Racetrack resonator
  • Whispering gallery modes


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