From Surgical to Total Transcatheter Stage I Palliation: Exploring Evidence and Perspectives

Rodrigo Zea-Vera, Francesca Sperotto, Pirooz Eghtesady, Nicola Maschietto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Neonates with single ventricle physiology and ductal-dependent systemic circulation, such as those with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, undergo palliation in the first days of life. Over the past decades, variations on the traditional Stage 1 palliation, also known as Norwood operation, have emerged. These include the hybrid palliation and the total transcatheter approach. Here, we review the current evidence and data on different Stage 1 approaches, with a focus on their advantages, challenges, and future perspectives. Overall, although controversy remains regarding the superiority or inferiority of one approach to another, outcomes after the Norwood and the hybrid palliation have improved over time. However, both procedures still represent high-risk approaches that entail exposure to sternotomy, surgery, and potential cardiopulmonary bypass. The total transcatheter Stage 1 palliation spares patients the surgical and cardiopulmonary bypass insults and has proven to be an effective strategy to bridge even high-risk infants to a later palliative surgery, complete repair, or transplant. As the most recently proposed approach, data are still limited but promising. Future studies will be needed to better define the advantages, challenges, outcomes, and overall potential of this novel approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Norwood procedure
  • Stage 1 palliation
  • congenital heart disease
  • hybrid procedure
  • outcomes
  • single ventricle
  • transcatheter Stage 1


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