While 9p deletion and duplication syndromes have been studied for several years, small sample sizes and minimal high-resolution data have limited a comprehensive delineation of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. In this study, we examined genetic data from 719 individuals in the worldwide 9p Network Cohort: a cohort seven to nine times larger than any previous study of 9p. Most breakpoints occur in bands 9p22 and 9p24, accounting for 35% and 38% of all breakpoints, respectively. Bands 9p11 and 9p12 have the fewest breakpoints, with each accounting for 0.6% of all breakpoints. The most common phenotype in 9p deletion and duplication syndromes is developmental delay, and we identified eight known neurodevelopmental disorder genes in 9p22 and 9p24. Since it has been previously reported that some individuals have a secondary structural variant related to the 9p variant, we examined our cohort for these variants and found 97 events. The top secondary variant involved 9q in 14 individuals (1.9%), including ring chromosomes and inversions. We identified a gender bias with significant enrichment for females (p = 0.0006) that may arise from a sex reversal in some individuals with 9p deletions. Genes on 9p were characterized regarding function, constraint metrics, and protein-protein interactions, resulting in a prioritized set of genes for further study. Finally, we achieved precision genomics in one child with a complex 9p structural variation using modern genomic technologies, demonstrating that long-read sequencing will be integral for some cases. Our study is the largest ever on 9p-related syndromes and provides key insights into genetic factors involved in these syndromes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100081
JournalHuman Genetics and Genomics Advances
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 13 2022


  • 9p
  • CNV
  • deletion
  • developmental
  • duplication
  • neurodevelopmental
  • phenotype
  • syndrome


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