Frequency and predictors of depression in congestive heart failure

Ibrahim Zahid, Mishall Ahmed Baig, Jaleed Ahmed Gilani, Nageen Waseem, Shumaila Ather, Aishath Shausha Farooq, Amna Ghouri, Simra Nadeem Siddiqui, Ram Kumar, Sahil, Suman, Raj Kumar, Ravi kumar, Awais Ahmed Mulla, Rabbia Siddiqi, Kaneez Fatima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background: Depression in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients can increase morbidity and mortality. Given the ever-rising prevalence of CHF patients with depression, it is vital that we understand the predictors of depression in these patients to identify and better manage these patients. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and predictors of depression in CHF patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with a diagnosis of CHF for more than 6 months based on signs and left ventricular ejection fraction <40% were included. Patients were interviewed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) consisting of nine items in line with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) - IV criteria to assess depression. Each item was scored from 0 to 3, and a PHQ-9 score of 10 or greater suggested clinical depression. Data were analyzed on SPSS, v22, and a p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of 170 participants, 102 (60%) had depression. Among these 102 patients, 42% (n = 43) had mild depression, and the rest (n = 59) had moderate-to-severe depression. Predictors of depression were New York Heart Association stage 3 or 4 (p = 0.001), previous myocardial infarction (p = 0.001), living without a partner (p = 0.001), lack of a joint family system (p = 0.001), sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.001), aged 70 years or more (p = 0.01), and having been admitted in a hospital at least once in the past two months (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Depression is common among patients with CHF. It is associated with multiple factors and needs to be addressed and targeted urgently.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S199-S203
JournalIndian Heart Journal
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • Congestive heart failure
  • Depression
  • NYHA classification


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