Freeze-dried plasma at the point of injury: From concept to doctrine

Elon Glassberg, Roy Nadler, Sami Gendler, Amir Abramovich, Philip C. Spinella, Robert T. Gerhardt, John B. Holcomb, Yitshak Kreiss

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


While early plasma transfusion for the treatment of patients with ongoing major hemorrhage is widely accepted as part of the standard of care in the hospital setting, logistic constraints have limited its use in the out-of-hospital setting. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP), which can be stored at ambient temperatures, enables early treatment in the out-of-hospital setting. Point-of-injury plasma transfusion entails several significant advantages over currently used resuscitation fluids, including the avoidance of dilutional coagulopathy, by minimizing the need for crystalloid infusion, beneficial effects on endothelial function, physiological pH level, and better maintenance of intravascular volume compared with crystalloid-based solutions. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps policy is that plasma is the resuscitation fluid of choice for selected, severely wounded patients and has thus included FDP as part of its armamentarium for use at the point of injury by advanced life savers, across the entire military. We describe the clinical rationale behind the use of FDP at the point-of-injury, the drafting of the administration protocol now being used by Israel Defense Forces advanced life support providers, the process of procurement and distribution, and preliminary data describing the first casualties treated with FDP at the point of injury. It is our hope that others will be able to learn from our experience, thus improving trauma casualty care around the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-450
Number of pages7
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Plasma
  • freeze-dried plasma
  • point-of-injury care
  • pre hospital
  • resuscitative fluid


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