Four-dimensional inverse-geometry computed tomography: A preliminary study

Kyeong Hyeon Kim, Dong Seok Shin, Sang Won Kang, Seong Hee Kang, Tae Ho Kim, Jin Beom Chung, Tae Suk Suh, Dong Su Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study introduces and evaluates respiratory-correlated four-dimensional (4D) inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT). The projection data of the IGCT were acquired in a single gantry rotation over 120 s. Three virtual phantoms - static Defrise, 4D Shepp-Logan, and 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) - were used to obtain projection data for the IGCT and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The projection acquisition parameters were determined to eliminate vacancies in the Radon space for an accurate rebinning process. Phase-based sorting was conducted within 10 phase bins, and the sorted projection data were binned into a cone beam geometry. Finally, Feldkamp-Davis-Kress reconstruction was conducted independently at each phase. The reconstructed images were compared using the structural similarity index measure (SSIM) and root mean square error (RMSE). The vertical profile of the Defrise reconstruction image was uniform, and the cone beam artefact was reduced in the IGCT image. Under an ideal projection acquisition condition, the mean coronal plane SSIMs of the Shepp-Logan and 4D XCAT phantoms were 0.899 and 0.706, respectively, which were higher than those of the CBCT (0.784 and 0.623, respectively). Similarly, the mean RMSEs of the coronal plane IGCT (0.036 and 0.158) exhibited an improvement over those of the CBCT (0.165 and 0.261, respectively). The mean standard deviations of the SSIM and RMSE were lower for IGCT than for CBCT. In particular, the SSIM and RMSE of the sagittal and coronal planes of the Shepp-Logan IGCT images were stable in all phase bins; however, those of the CBCT changed depending on the phase bins. Poor image quality was observed for IGCT under inappropriate conditions. This was caused by a vacancy in the Radon space, owing to an inappropriate scan setting. Overall, the proposed 4D IGCT exhibited better image quality than conventional CBCT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065028
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 21 2021


  • 4D IGCT
  • four-dimensional imaging
  • image-guided radiation therapy
  • inverse geometry computed tomography
  • on-board imaging


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