Annual costs are enormous for musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia and for bone and muscle injuries, costing billions annually in health care. Although it is clear that muscle and bone development, growth, and function are connected, and that muscle loads bone, little is known regarding cellular and molecular interactions between these two tissues. A conference supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) was held in July 2012 to address the enormous burden of musculoskeletal disease. National and international experts in either bone or muscle presented their findings and their novel hypotheses regarding muscle-bone interactions to stimulate the exchange of ideas between these two fields. The immediate goal of the conference was to identify critical research themes that would lead to collaborative research interactions and grant applications focusing on interactions between muscle and bone. The ultimate goal of the meeting was to generate a better understanding of how these two tissues integrate and crosstalk in both health and disease to stimulate new therapeutic strategies to enhance and maintain musculoskeletal health.