Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western hemisphere. The natural history of FL appears to have been favorably impacted by the introduction of rituximab after randomized clinical trials demonstrated that the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy induction has improved the overall survival. Yet, the disease is biologically and clinically heterogeneous with wide variations in outcomes for individual patients. The ability to accurately risk-stratify patients and then tailor therapy to the individual is an area of ongoing research. Historically, tumor grade, tumor burden, and the FL international prognostic index (version 1 and version 2) have been used to distinguish low-risk from high-risk patients. Biologic factors such as mutations in key genes can identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes to first-line therapy (mutational status of 7 genes [EZH2, ARID1A, MEF2B, EP300, FOX01, CREBBP, and CARD11]with Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index).More recently, the quality of the response to initial therapy, asmeasured by either PET imaging or by remission duration, has been show to identify individuals at high risk. However, several unmet needs remain, including a better ability to identify high-risk patients at diagnosis, the development of predictive biomarkers for targeted agents, and strategies to reduce the risk of transformation.