Fluorinated compounds feature favorable toxicity profile and can be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Fluorine nucleus from fluorinated compounds exhibit well-known advantages of being a high signal nucleus with a natural abundance of its stable isotope, a convenient gyromagnetic ratio close to that of protons, and a unique spectral signature with no detectable background at clinical field strengths. Perfluorocarbon core nanoparticles (PFC NP) are a class of clinically approved emulsion agents recently applied in vivo for ligand-targeted molecular imaging. The objective of this chapter is to outline a multinuclear 1H/19F MRI protocol for functional kidney imaging in rodents for mapping of renal blood volume and oxygenation (pO2) in renal disease models. This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This experimental protocol chapter is complemented by a separate chapter describing the basic concept of functional imaging using fluorine (19F) MR methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Fluorine
  • Kidney
  • MRI
  • Mice
  • Oxygenation
  • Perfluorocarbon
  • Perfusion
  • Rats


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