Flexible Near-Field Wireless Optoelectronics as Subdermal Implants for Broad Applications in Optogenetics

Gunchul Shin, Adrian M. Gomez, Ream Al-Hasani, Yu Ra Jeong, Jeonghyun Kim, Zhaoqian Xie, Anthony Banks, Seung Min Lee, Sang Youn Han, Chul Jong Yoo, Jong Lam Lee, Seung Hee Lee, Jonas Kurniawan, Jacob Tureb, Zhongzhu Guo, Jangyeol Yoon, Sung Il Park, Sang Yun Bang, Yoonho Nam, Marie C. WalickiVijay K. Samineni, Aaron D. Mickle, Kunhyuk Lee, Seung Yun Heo, Jordan G. McCall, Taisong Pan, Liang Wang, Xue Feng, Tae il Kim, Jong Kyu Kim, Yuhang Li, Yonggang Huang, Robert W. Gereau, Jeong Sook Ha, Michael R. Bruchas, John A. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

297 Scopus citations


In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from UV to blue, green-yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-521.e3
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 8 2017


  • ChR2
  • Chrimson
  • LED
  • NAc
  • VTA
  • dopamine
  • near-field communication
  • optogenetics
  • reward
  • wireless


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