During the past year, significant advances have been made in the understanding of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella. About 50 genes are dedicated to the assembly and operation of bacterial flagella. Recent discoveries have advanced our understanding of how these genes are regulated and how their products assemble into a functional, rotating organelle. The dynein arms of eukaryotic flagella are now also better understood. Several genes that are found in the mechanochemical macroassemblies have been cloned, and other loci have been identified, suggesting that there is even greater complexity than first expected.