Between September 25, 1987, and December 31, 1992, 75 patients (53 men, 22 women; average age, 52 years) underwent the maze procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Six patients had undergone a previous cardiac operation and 28% underwent concomitant cardiac procedures in addition to the maze procedure. One patient (1.3%) died 10 days after undergoing a combined maze procedure and Morrow procedure for the management of chronic atrial fibrillation and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Postoperative atrial pacemakers were required in 40%:26% for preoperative sick sinus syndrome and 6% for iatrogenic injury of the sinus node, and 8% had pacemakers in place preoperatively. As of December 31, 1992, 65 patients had been followed up for at least 3 months after operation (range, 3 to 63 months). The maze procedure cured atrial fibrillation, restored atrioventricular synchrony, and preserved atrial transport function in 64 of 65 patients (98%). The procedure has been curative without the need for medications in 58 of 65 patients (89%) and with the need for medications in 6 of 65 (9%), with medications failing in only 1 of the 65 patients (2%). The results support the maze procedure as the treatment of choice in patients with medically refractory symptomatic atrial fibrillation.