First insights into the floristic diversity, biological spectra and phenology of manoor valley, Pakistan

Inayat U.R. Rahman, Aftab Afzal, Zafar Iqbal, Farhana Ijaz, Niaz Ali, Muhammad Asif, Jan Alam, Abdul Majid, Robbie Hart, Rainer W. Bussmann

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34 Scopus citations


To assess floristic composition, phenology, leaf and biological spectrum of an unexplored remote valley (Manoor Valley), frequent field visits were arranged in different growing seasons during 2015-17. Plant specimens were collected, identified and deposited to the Herbarium at Hazara University, Mansehra. Plants were classified into life form, and leaf sizes classes were determined. The floristic diversity consisted of 307 plant species belonging to 81 families. Asteraceae was the leading family with 31 species, followed by Rosaceae with 22 species, and Lamiaceae with 20 species respectively. An additional, 78 families had fewer than 20 species. Herbaceous growth form contributed maximum with 228 spp. (74.27%), followed by shrubs with 45 spp. (14.66%) and trees with 34 spp. (11.07%) respectively. On the basis of the life form spectrum, our results indicated that the flora was dominated by Therophytes (104 spp., 33.88%), followed by Hemicryptophytes (87 spp., 28.34%), Nanophanerophytes (41 spp., 13.36%), Chamaephytes (24 spp., 7.82%), Mesophanerophytes (20 spp., 6.51%), Geophytes (13 spp., 4.23%), Megaphanerophytes (9 spp., 2.93%), Microphanerophytes (5 spp., 1.66%), and Lianas (3 spp., 0.98%)respectively. Whereas, one parasitic plant species (Cuscuta reflexa) was also found and collected. In leaf spectra, Nanophyll dominated the study area with 92 spp. (29.97%), followed by Microphyll (86 spp., 28.01%), Leptophyll (59 spp., 19.22%), Mesophyll (49 spp., 15.96%), and Megaphyll (17 spp., 5.54%) respectively. Moreover, 4species (1.30%) were found Aphyllous i.e., Cuscuta reflexa, Ephedra girardiana, Equisetum arvense and Periploca aphylla. Phenological behavior revealed that July marks the peak of flowering season in 80 plant species (26.06%), followed by June where 77 species (25.08%) had flowering. The fruiting data showed that September month was the peak fruiting season (25.41%) in 78 plant species, followed by August (22.80%) in 70 species. In the present study, a list has been launched of all the possible plants present in this unexplored area, which could serve as a vital resource for all future endeavors in the field of phytosociological studies, phytochemical, and pharmacological activities and conservation of natural resources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1113-1124
Number of pages12
JournalPakistan Journal of Botany
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • Biological spectrum
  • Floristic composition
  • Manoor Valley
  • Pakistan
  • Phenology


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