The immune system plays essential roles in maintaining homeostasis in mammalian tissues that extend beyond pathogen clearance and host defense. Recently, several homeostatic circuits comprised of paired hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells have been described to influence tissue composition and turnover in development and after perturbation. Crucial circuit components include innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which seed developing organs and shape their resident tissues by influencing progenitor fate decisions, microbial interactions, and neuronal activity. As they develop in tissues, ILCs undergo transcriptional imprinting that encodes receptivity to corresponding signals derived from their resident tissues but ILCs can also shift their transcriptional profiles to adapt to specific types of tissue perturbation. Thus, ILC functions are embedded within their resident tissues, where they constitute key regulators of homeostatic responses that can lead to both beneficial and pathogenic outcomes. Here, we examine the interactions between ILCs and various non-hematopoietic tissue cells, and discuss how specific ILC-tissue cell circuits form essential elements of tissue immunity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages17
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Cytokines
  • Innate lymphoid cells
  • Tissue-resident lymphocytes
  • Transcriptomics


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