Exploiting the lytic life cycle of viruses has gained recent attention as an anticancer strategy (oncolysis). To explore the utility of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated oncolysis for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), we tested RMS cell lines for Ad gene transduction and infection. RMS cells were variably transduced by Ad. Compared with control cells, RMS cells were less sensitive or even resistant to oncolysis by wild-type virus. RMS cells expressed the Ad internalization receptors, αv, integrins, but had low or undetectable expression of the major attachment receptor, coxsackie-virus-Ad receptor (CAR). Mutant Ads with ablated CAR binding exhibited only 5-20% of transgene expression in RMS cells seen with a wild-type vector, suggesting that residual or heterogeneous CAR expression mediated the little transduction that was detectable. Immunohistochemical analysis of archived clinical specimens showed little detectable CAR expression in five embryonal and eight alveolar RMS tumors. Stable transduction of the cDNA for CAR enabled both efficient Ad gene transfer and oncolysis for otherwise resistant RMS cells, suggesting that poor CAR expression is the limiting feature. Gene transfer to RMS cells was increased >2 logs using Ads engineered with modified fiber knobs containing either an integrin-binding RGD peptide or a polylysine peptide in the exposed HI loop. The RGD modification enabled increased oneolysis for RMS cells by a conditionally replicative Ad, AdΔ24RGD, harboring a retinoblastoma-binding mutation in the E1A gene. Thus, the development of replication-competent vectors targeted to cell surface receptors other than CAR is critical to advance the use of Ad for treating RMS.
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Apr 1 2001|