Fertility after Intrauterine Device Removal: A Pilot Study

Amy M. Stoddard, Hanna Xu, Tessa Madden, Jenifer E. Allsworth, Jeffrey F. Peipert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Abstract Background Despite high efficacy, only 7.7% of women in the United States currently using contraception use an IUD. There is little published contemporary data about fertility rates after IUD use, especially in nulliparous women and women using the hormonal IUD. Study Design We recruited sexually active women 18 to 35 years of age enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who had discontinued a contraceptive method and desired pregnancy. Results In this pilot project, we enrolled 69 former IUD users (19 copper and 50 levonorgestrel) and 42 former non-IUD users. Pregnancy rates at 12 months were similar between the two groups; 81% of IUD users became pregnant compared to 70% of non-IUD users (p = 0.18). In the Cox model, there was no difference in the time to pregnancy in IUD users compared to non-IUD users (HRadj 1.19, 95% CI 0.74-1.92). African American race was the only variable associated with reduced fertility (HRadj 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.67). Conclusions We found no difference in 12-month pregnancy rates or time to pregnancy between former IUD users and users of other contraceptive methods. However, there was a clinically and statistically significant reduction in fertility in African American women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-230
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


  • Contraception
  • Fertility
  • Intrauterine device
  • Race


Dive into the research topics of 'Fertility after Intrauterine Device Removal: A Pilot Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this