Three fenamates (flufenamate, meclofenamate and mefenamate) were examined for their protective effect on neurons under ischemic (glucose/oxygen deprivation) or excitotoxic conditions, using the isolated retina of chick embryo as a model. Retinal damage was evaluated by histology and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Whole-cell recording was used to examine the direct effect of the fenamates on glutamate receptor-mediated currents. The fenamates protected the retina against the ischemic or excitotoxic insult. Part of the neuroprotection by the fenamates derived from inhibition of N- methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated currents. However, kainate receptor- mediated currents were not blocked by the fenamates, which nonetheless reduced kainate receptor-mediated retinal damage. Our results raise the possibility that fenamates may serve as lead structures in the development of novel therapeutic agents against brain ischemia.
- Glutamate receptor
- N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor