Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) causes hip instability and early-onset osteoarthritis. The focus on pathomechanics in DDH has centered on the shallow acetabulum, however there is growing awareness of the role of femoral deformities in joint damage. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of femoral version (FV) on the muscle and joint reaction forces (JRFs) of dysplastic hips during gait. Magnetic resonance images, in-vivo gait data, and musculoskeletal models were used to calculate JRFs and simulate changes due to varying FV deformities. Rotation about the long axis of the femur was added in the musculoskeletal models to simulate FV values from −5° (relative retroversion) to + 35° (increased anteversion). In our simulations, FV deformities caused the largest changes to the anteroposterior and resultant JRFs. From a normal FV of 15°, a 15° increase in femoral anteversion caused JRFs to be less posterior in early stance (Δ = 0.43 ± 0.22 xbodyweight) and more anterior in late stance (Δ = 0.60 ± 14 xbodyweight). Relative retroversion caused anteroposterior changes that were similar to anteversion in early stance but opposite in late stance. Resultant JRFs experienced the largest changes during late stance where anteversion raised the peak by 0.48 ± 0.15 xbodyweight and relative retroversion lowered the peak by 0.32 ± 0.30 xbodyweight. Increasing anteversion increased hip flexor and abductor muscle forces, which caused the changes in JRFs. Identifying how FV deformities influence hip joint loading can elucidate their role in the mechanisms of hip degeneration in patients with DDH.
- Developmental dysplasia of the hip
- Femoral version
- Joint reaction forces
- Musculoskeletal modeling