Femoral Component Undersizing and Alignment are Risk Factors for Early Periprosthetic Femur Fracture

Kyle Alpaugh, Yu Fen Chiu, Jason P. Zlotnicki, Ilya Bendich, Alejandro Gonzalez Della Valle, Mathias P.G. Bostrom, Elizabeth B. Gausden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Known risk factors for early periprosthetic femur fracture (PFF) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) include poor bone quality and the use of cementless implants. The association between femoral component size and alignment and the risk of early PFF is not well described. We evaluated radiographic parameters of femoral component sizing and alignment as risk factors for early PFF. Methods: From 16,065 primary cementless THAs, we identified 66 cases (0.41%) of early PFFs (<90 days from index THA) at a single institution between 2016 and 2020. Sixty early PFFs were (1:2) matched to 120 controls based on the femoral component model, offset, surgical approach, age, body mass index (BMI), and gender. Radiographic assessment of preoperative bone morphology and postoperative femoral component orientation included stem alignment, metaphyseal fill, and implant congruence with medial cortical bone. A multivariable logistic regression was built to identify radiographic risk factors associated with early PFF. Results: Markers of preoperative bone quality including canal calcar ratio (P = .003), canal flare index (P < .001), anteroposterior canal bone ratio (CBR) (P < .001), and lateral CBR (P < .001) were statistically associated with PFF. Distance between the medial cortical bone and implant was greater in cases of PFF (2.5 mm vs 1.4 mm) (P < .001). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that a larger lateral metaphyseal CBR (Odds Ratio [OR] 5), valgus implant alignment (OR 5), and medial implant-bone incongruity (OR 2) increased the risk of early PFF. Conclusion: A larger lateral metaphyseal CBR, valgus component alignment, and implant incongruity with medial cortical bone posed the greatest radiographic risk for early PFF following cementless THA.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • cementless stem
  • early total hip failure
  • femoral component
  • periprosthetic femur fracture
  • periprosthetic fracture
  • total hip arthroplasty

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