Feasibility of surface-guidance combined with CBCT for intra-fractional breath-hold motion management during Ethos RT

Taeho Kim, Eric Laugeman, Kendall Kiser, Joshua Schiff, Shanti Marasini, Alex Price, H. Michael Gach, Nels Knutson, Pamela Samson, Clifford Robinson, Casey Hatscher, Lauren Henke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: High-quality CBCT and AI-enhanced adaptive planning techniques allow CBCT-guided stereotactic adaptive radiotherapy (CT-STAR) to account for inter-fractional anatomic changes. Studies of intra-fractional respiratory motion management with a surface imaging solution for CT-STAR have not been fully conducted. We investigated intra-fractional motion management in breath-hold Ethos-based CT-STAR and CT-SBRT (stereotactic body non-adaptive radiotherapy) using optical surface imaging combined with onboard CBCTs. Methods: Ten cancer patients with mobile lower lung or upper abdominal malignancies participated in an IRB-approved clinical trial (Phase I) of optical surface image-guided Ethos CT-STAR/SBRT. In the clinical trial, a pre-configured gating window (± 2 mm in AP direction) on optical surface imaging was used for manually triggering intra-fractional CBCT acquisition and treatment beam irradiation during breath-hold (seven patients for the end of exhalation and three patients for the end of inhalation). Two inter-fractional CBCTs at the ends of exhalation and inhalation in each fraction were acquired to verify the primary direction and range of the tumor/imaging-surrogate (donut-shaped fiducial) motion. Intra-fractional CBCTs were used to quantify the residual motion of the tumor/imaging-surrogate within the pre-configured breath-hold window in the AP direction. Fifty fractions of Ethos RT were delivered under surface image-guidance: Thirty-two fractions with CT-STAR (adaptive RT) and 18 fractions with CT-SBRT (non-adaptive RT). The residual motion of the tumor was quantified by determining variations in the tumor centroid position. The dosimetric impact on target coverage was calculated based on the residual motion. Results: We used 46 fractions for the analysis of intra-fractional residual motion and 43 fractions for the inter-fractional motion analysis due to study constraints. Using the image registration method, 43 pairs of inter-fractional CBCTs and 100 intra-fractional CBCTs attached to dose maps were analyzed. In the motion range study (image registration) from the inter-fractional CBCTs, the primary motion (mean ± std) was 16.6 ± 9.2 mm in the SI direction (magnitude: 26.4 ± 11.3 mm) for the tumors and 15.5 ± 7.3 mm in the AP direction (magnitude: 20.4 ± 7.0 mm) for the imaging-surrogate, respectively. The residual motion of the tumor (image registration) from intra-fractional breath-hold CBCTs was 2.2 ± 2.0 mm for SI, 1.4 ± 1.4 mm for RL, and 1.3 ± 1.3 mm for AP directions (magnitude: 3.5 ± 2.1 mm). The ratio of the actual dose coverage to 99%, 90%, and 50% of the target volume decreased by 0.95 ± 0.11, 0.96 ± 0.10, 0.99 ± 0.05, respectively. The mean percentage of the target volume covered by the prescribed dose decreased by 2.8 ± 4.4%. Conclusion: We demonstrated the intra-fractional motion-managed treatment strategy in breath-hold Ethos CT-STAR/SBRT using optical surface imaging and CBCT. While the controlled residual tumor motion measured at 3.5 mm exceeded the predetermined setup value of 2 mm, it is important to note that this motion still fell within the clinically acceptable range defined by the PTV margin of 5 mm. Nonetheless, additional caution is needed with intra-fractional motion management in breath-hold Ethos CT-STAR/SBRT using optical surface imaging and CBCT.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14242
JournalJournal of applied clinical medical physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • adaptive radiotherapy
  • ethos
  • optical surface imaging
  • respiratory motion management


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