Feasibility and validity of a low-cost racing simulator in driving assessment after stroke

Jonathan Tiu, Annie C. Harmon, James D. Stowe, Amen Zwa, Marc Kinnear, Latch Dimitrov, Tina Nolte, David B. Carr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


There is amyriad ofmethodologies to assess driving performance after a stroke. These include psychometric tests, driving simulation, questionnaires, and/or road tests. Research-based driving simulators have emerged as a safe, convenient way to assess driving performance after a stroke. Such traditional research simulators are useful in recreating street traffic scenarios, but are often expensive, with limited physics models and graphics rendering. In contrast, racing simulators developed for motorsport professionals and enthusiasts offer high levels of realism, run on consumer-grade hardware, and can provide rich telemetric data. However, most offer limited simulation of traffic scenarios. This pilot study compares the feasibility of research simulation and racing simulation in a sample with minor stroke. We determine that the racing simulator is tolerated well in subjects with a minor stroke. There were correlations between research and racing simulator outcomes with psychometric tests associated with driving performance, such as the Trails Making Test Part A, Snellgrove Maze Task, and the Motricity Index. We found correlations between measures of driving speed on a complex research simulator scenario and racing simulator lap time and maximum tires off track. Finally, we present two models, using outcomes from either the research or racing simulator, predicting road test failure as linked to a previously published fitness-to-drive calculator that uses psychometric screening.

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
JournalGeriatrics (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • Driving assessment
  • Driving rehabilitation
  • Driving simulation
  • Racing simulation
  • Return to driving
  • Stroke rehabilitation


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