Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and assess safety parameters of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU)-mediated hyperthermia (HT; heating to 40–45 °C) in various pelvic targets in a porcine model in vivo. Methods: Thirteen HT treatments were performed in six pigs with a commercial MRgHIFU system (Sonalleve V2, Profound Medical Inc., Mississauga, Canada) to muscle adjacent to the ventral/dorsal bladder wall and uterus to administer 42 °C (±1°) for 30 min (±5%) using an 18-mm target diameter and 100 W power. Feasibility was assessed using accuracy, uniformity, and MR-thermometry performance-based metrics. Safety parameters were assessed for tissues in the targets and beam-path by contrast-enhanced MRI, gross-pathology and histopathology. Results: Across all HT sessions, the mean difference between average temperature (Tavg) and the target temperature within the target region-of-interest (tROI, the cross-section of the heated volume at focal depth) was 0.51 ± 0.33 °C. Within the tROI, the temperature standard deviation averaged 1.55 ± 0.31 °C, the average 30-min Tavg variation was 0.80 ± 0.17 °C, and the maximum difference between Tavg and the 10th- or 90th-percentile temperature averaged 2.01 ± 0.44 °C. The average time to reach ≥41 °C and cool to ≤40 °C within the tROI at the beginning and end of treatment was 47.25 ± 27.47 s and 66.37 ± 62.68 s, respectively. Compared to unheated controls, no abnormally-perfused tissue or permanent damage was evident in the MR images, gross pathology or histological analysis. Conclusions: MRgHIFU-mediated HT is feasible and safety assessment is satisfactory for treating an array of clinically-mimicking pelvic geometries in a porcine model in vivo, implying the technique may have utility in treating pelvic targets in human patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1147-1159
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • HIFU
  • MR thermometry
  • MR-guided HIFU
  • hyperthermia
  • image-guided therapy


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