Background. Sleeve lobectomy and bronchoplasty are established alternatives to pneumonectomy for bronchial malignancies involving a main bronchus. However, potential bronchial anastomotic complications have deterred the general application of these types of resection. Some reports have contained a mixture of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and tumors of low-grade malignancy, making it difficult to assess the long-term results of these procedures as an alternative to pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with sleeve lobectomy and bronchoplasty for bronchial malignancies from January 1988 to September 1998 separating NSCLC (n = 58) from tumors of low-grade malignancy (n = 19). We compared the overall results between sleeve lobectomy and pneumonectomy (n = 142) performed for NSCLC over the same time interval. Results. For NSCLC, after sleeve lobectomy, the operative mortality was 5.2% (3 of 58 patients) and the overall 5-year actuarial survival was 37.5%. After pneumonectomy, the operative mortality was 4.9% (7 of 142 patients) and the overall 5-year actuarial survival was 35.8%. For tumors with low-grade malignancy, there was no operative mortality after sleeve lobectomy or bronchoplasty and the 5-year actuarial survival was 100%. Major bronchial anastomotic complications occurred in 3 patients among the 77 patients who underwent sleeve resection. Conclusions. Sleeve resection can be performed with a low risk of bronchial anastomotic complication. The long-term survival after sleeve resection for NSCLC is similar to pneumonectomy. Excellent results are obtained after sleeve resection for low-grade malignancies.