Fat and Dachsous (Ds) are very large cell adhesion molecules. They bind each other and have important, highly conserved roles in planar cell polarity (PCP) and growth control. PCP is defined as the directionally coordinated development of cellular structures or behavior. Cellular and tissue growth needs to be modulated in terms of rate and final size, and the Hippo pathway regulates growth in a variety of developmental contexts. Fat and Ds are important upstream regulators of these pathways. There are two Fat proteins in Drosophila, Fat and Fat2, and four in vertebrates, Fat1-4. There is one Ds protein in Drosophila and two in vertebrates, Dachsous1-2. In this chapter, we discuss the roles of Fat and Ds family members, focusing on Drosophila and mouse development.