Our specific aim in this study was to assess the family resemblance for lipids and lipoproteins in blacks randomly selected from the Princeton School District's Family Study cohort, and compare the family resemblance of lipids and lipoproteins between the blacks and whites from the same cohort. There were 160 white and 59 black nuclear families ascertained through randomly selected family study probands. Familial correlations were estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. Father-child and sib-sib correlations were of larger magnitude in whites than blacks for each lipid and lipoprotein, with the exception of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, where the correlations in blacks were higher than in whites. Estimates of genetic heritability were larger in whites than in blacks for each lipid and lipoprotein, with the exception of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Whereas environment has a substantial effect on greater genetic effect accounting for higher levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in blacks. This is highlighted in our current study by the consistent observation in blacks of increased measures of within-family resemblance for high density lipoprotein cholesterol alone, of all lipids and lipoproteins.