Familial correlation analyses were used to evaluate the familial aggregation of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides (testosterone (TESTO), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (3α-DIOL-G), and androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G)) in 505 members of 99 white families and 296 members of 111 black families participating in the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. Each of these four measures was determined by RIA after separation of conjugated and unconjugated steroid using C18 column chromatography. All participants were sedentary prior to being including in this study. Significant spouse correlations, as well as parent-offspring and sibling correlations, were found for TESTO, DHT, 3α-DIOL-G, and ADT-G in the white sample, suggesting that common familial environments and genes contribute to the familial resemblance. In the black sample, significant sibling and parent-offspring correlations were found for all four phenotypes, while the spouse correlation was marginally significant for 3α-DIOL-G and not significant for TESTO, DHT, and ADT-G. The non-significance of spouse correlations in the black individuals may be due to the small number of spouse pairs. The maximal heritability estimates of TESTO, DHT, 3α-DIOL-G, and ADT-G were 69%, 87%, 74%, and 56% for white individuals and 70%, 73%, 62%, and 48% for black individuals respectively. Sex differences in heritability estimates were found in the white individuals, but they were less dramatic in the black individuals. In conclusion, plasma levels of androgens and androgen glucuronides are highly heritable in both white individuals and black individuals. There are notable sex differences in the white individuals.