Failure of nonoperative care in adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis: incidence, timing, and risk factors for conversion from nonoperative to operative treatment

John C.F. Clohisy, Justin S. Smith, Michael P. Kelly, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Christine R. Baldus, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Han Jo Kim, Adam LaBore, Vy Pham, Keith H. Bridwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis (ASLS) study is a prospective multicenter trial with randomized and observational cohorts comparing operative and nonoperative treatment for ASLS. The objective of the present study was to perform a post hoc analysis of the ASLS trial to examine factors related to failure of nonoperative treatment in ASLS. METHODS Patients from the ASLS trial who initially received at least 6 months of nonoperative treatment were followed for up to 8 years after trial enrollment. Baseline patient-reported outcome measures (Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22] questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), radiographic data, and other clinical characteristics were compared between patients who did and did not convert to operative treatment during follow-up. The incidence of operative treatment was calculated and independent predictors of operative treatment were identified using multivariate regression. RESULTS Of 135 nonoperative patients, 42 (31%) crossed over to operative treatment after 6 months and 93 (69%) received only nonoperative treatment. In the observational cohort, 23 (22%) of 106 nonoperative patients crossed over to surgery. In the randomized cohort, 19 (66%) of 29 patients randomized to nonoperative treatment crossed over to surgery. The most impactful factors associated with crossover from nonoperative to operative treatment were enrollment in the randomized cohort and baseline SRS-22 subscore < 3.0 at the 2-year follow-up, closer to 3.4 at 8 years. In addition, baseline lumbar lordosis (LL) < 50° was associated with crossover to operative treatment. Each 1-point decrease in baseline SRS-22 subscore was associated with a 233% higher risk of conversion to surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-4.76, p = 0.0212). Each 10° decrease in LL was associated with a 24% increased risk of conversion to operative treatment (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49, p = 0.0232). Enrollment in the randomized cohort was associated with a 337% higher probability of proceeding with operative treatment (HR 3.37, 95% CI 1.54-7.35, p = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS Enrollment in the randomized cohort, a lower baseline SRS-22 subscore, and lower LL were associated with conversion from nonoperative treatment to surgery in patients (observational and randomized) who were initially managed nonoperatively in the ASLS trial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-508
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Spine
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • adult scoliosis
  • crossover
  • lumbar
  • nonoperative treatment
  • outcomes
  • spine deformity
  • spine surgery

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