Prevention and control of graft rejection remain essential in the investigation of peripheral nerve allotransplantation. Although use of cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to suppress successfully the rejection of nerve allografts, limited information exists concerning use of this drug to arrest rejection in progress, and thereby effect salvage of these grafts. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of CsA in the treatment of ongoing acute rejection of peripheral nerve allografts. Buffalo rats received posterior tibial nerve grafts from either Lewis or Buffalo donor animals and were divided into five groups: group 1 received isografts and no CsA treatment (n = 8), group 2 received allografts with continuous CsA therapy (n = 10), group 3 received allografts with no treatment (n = 7), group 4 received allografts with initiation of CsA therapy delayed until 3 weeks after the procedure (n = 11), and group 5 received allografts with an interrupted course of CsA (n = 15). All grafts were harvested at 10 weeks. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated comparable nerve regeneration in groups 1 and 2 and good regeneration in group 3 animals, despite cellular infiltrate suggestive of rejection. At 3 weeks after surgery, group 4 animals showed early rejection and significantly less neuroregeneration than positive controls at 10 weeks after delayed initiation of CsA therapy. Finally, group 5 animals showed early regeneration at 3 weeks but significantly lesser regeneration by 10 weeks after interruption of therapy. In this experimental protocol, CsA was ineffective in rescuing histologically proven rejection in progress.