Factors associated with viremia in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Guatemala

Dean W. Ortíz, Olivia Roberts-Sano, Hugo E. Marroquin, Lindsey Larson, Katherine B. Franco, Andrej Spec, Johanna R. Melendez, Rodolfo Pinzón, Ana J. Samayoa, Carlos Mejia-Chew, Jane A. O´Halloran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Viral suppression prevents HIV transmission and disease progression, but socio-economic and clinical factors can hinder the goal of suppression. We evaluated factors associated with viral non suppression (VNS) and persistent viremia (PV) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Guatemala. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional analysis using data from an ongoing cohort of PLHIV attending the largest HIV clinic in Guatemala. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted between PLHIV with viral suppression and detectable viremia. VNS was defined as most recent HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml and PV as two consecutive HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Results: Of 664 participants, 13.3% had VNS and 7.1% had PV. In univariable analysis disaggregated by gender, low income, poor education, perceived difficulty attending healthcare, and alcohol use were associated with VNS in men while low CD4 at diagnosis, multiple prior ART regimens and treatment interruptions were significant in both genders. Multiple prior ART regimens (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2.82, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.99], p < 0.01), treatment interruptions (aOR 4.51, [95% CI 2.13, 9.58], p < 0.01), excessive alcohol consumption (aOR 2.56, [95% CI 1.18, 5.54], p < 0.05) perceived difficulty attending healthcare (aOR 2.07, [95% CI 1.25, 3.42], p < 0.01) and low CD4 at diagnosis (aOR 2.34, 95% [CI 1.30, 4.20], p < 0.01) were independently associated with VNS on multivariable regression. Conclusions: We conclude that socio-economic and clinical factors influence viral suppression in our cohort and vary between men and women. Gender specific approaches are necessary to achieve the 90% suppression goal.

Original languageEnglish
Article number79
JournalAIDS Research and Therapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Gender
  • HIV
  • Health risk behavior
  • Health services accessibility
  • Sustained virologic suppression
  • Treatment outcomes


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