Factors Associated With Disease Progression in the Contralateral Hip of Patients With Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Minimum 5-Year Analysis

Adam Z. Khan, Wahid Abu-Amer, Susan Thapa, Frank W. Parilla, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido, John C. Clohisy, Jeffrey J. Nepple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is one of the most common causes of hip osteoarthritis, yet the factors controlling disease progression are poorly understood. Purpose: To investigate rates of initial and subsequent symptoms in the contralateral hip of patients with FAI, and identify predictors of disease progression (symptom development and surgical intervention) in the contralateral hip. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: This prospective study included a minimum 5-year follow-up of the contralateral hip in 179 patients undergoing FAI surgery. Symptoms (moderate pain) and surgical progression were monitored. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared patient-specific and imaging characteristics of symptomatic patients with those who remained asymptomatic to identify factors associated with disease progression. Results: A total of 150 patients (84% follow-up) were followed for a mean of 7.1 years (range, 5-11 years). Thirty-nine of these patients (26% [39/150]) had contralateral hip symptoms at initial evaluation. Of those without contralateral hip symptoms at initial evaluation, 32% (36/111) had developed contralateral hip symptoms by latest follow-up. Those who developed symptoms during the study period had a lower anteroposterior head-neck offset ratio (0.153 vs 0.165; P =.005), decreased total arc of rotation in 90° of flexion (39.9° vs 51.1°; P =.005), and decreased external rotation in 90° of flexion (28.6° vs 37.1°; P =.003) compared with those who never developed symptoms. Age, sex, body mass index, alpha angle, lateral center-edge angle, internal rotation in flexion, and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), activity score were similar between these groups. Those with contralateral symptoms at initial evaluation progressed to contralateral surgery at a rate of 41% (16/39) and those who developed contralateral symptoms during the study period progressed to contralateral surgery at a rate of 28% (10/36). Among those with contalateral hip symptoms (either present initially or developed during study period)), younger age (24.6 vs 34.1 years; P <.001) and baseline UCLA activity score ≥9 (P =.003) were associated with progression to surgery. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 64%, 54%, and 48% of patients remained free of contralateral hip symptoms at 2, 5, and 10 years. Conclusion: At a mean follow-up of 7.1 years, significant symptoms in the contralateral hip of patients with FAI were present in approximately 50% of patients. FAI disease progression (symptom development and surgical intervention) was associated with decreased hip rotation arc, decreased external rotation, and decreased head-neck offset ratio. In symptomatic patients, younger age and UCLA activity score ≥9 were associated with progression to surgery. These findings represent important factors for patient counseling and risk modeling in FAI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3174-3183
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume50
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • contralateral
  • femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)
  • hip

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