Importance: Emergency department (ED) visitation is common for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), whereas dermatology outpatient care is low. The reasons underlying this differential follow-up have not been elucidated. Objective: To assess the interventions and patient factors associated with ED return following an initial ED visit for HS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the IBM® MarketScan® Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid databases (trademark symbols retained per database owner requirement). An HS cohort was formed from patients who had 2 or more claims for HS during the study period of 2010 to 2019 and with at least 1 ED visit for their HS or a defined proxy. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to May 2022. Exposures: Factors analyzed included those associated with the ED visit and patient characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were return to the ED or dermatology outpatient follow-up for HS or related proxy within 30 or 180 days of index ED visit. Results: This retrospective cohort study included 20269 patients with HS (median [IQR] age, 32 [25-41] years; 16804 [82.9%] female patients), of which 7455 (36.8%) had commercial insurance and 12814 (63.2%) had Medicaid. A total of 9737 (48.0%) patients had incision and drainage performed at the index ED visit, 14725 (72.6%) received an oral antibiotic prescription, and 9913 (48.9%) received an opioid medication prescription. A total of 3484 (17.2%) patients had at least 1 return ED visit for HS or proxy within 30 days, in contrast with 483 (2.4%) who had a dermatology visit (P <.001). Likewise, 6893 (34.0%) patients had a return ED visit for HS or proxy within 180 days, as opposed to 1374 (6.8%) with a dermatology visit (P <.001). Patients with Medicaid and patients who had an opioid prescribed were more likely to return to the ED for treatment of their disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.38-1.58; and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.39-1.58, respectively, within 180 days) and, conversely, less likely to have dermatology follow-up (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.14-0.18; and OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.91, respectively, within 180 days). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests that many patients with HS frequent the ED for their disease but are not subsequently seen in the dermatology clinic for ongoing care. The findings in this study raise the opportunity for cross-specialty interventions that could be implemented to better connect patients with HS to longitudinal care..