Objective To determine the effect of obesity on simulated birth trauma in leptin-deficient obese mice as measured by relative monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) expression. Materials and Methods A total of 25 wild-type and 25 obese C57BL/6 virgin female mice underwent 1 hour of vaginal distension (VD), sham VD, or anesthesia without VD. Pelvic organ tissues were then harvested either immediately or 24-hours post VD and subsequent real-time polymerase chain reacton analysis was performed. Results Urethral MCP-3 levels in wild-type mice were elevated from baseline at 0 hours with a return to baseline at 24 hours in both VD and sham VD groups. In obese mice, there was a 6-fold elevation in MCP-3 levels at 0 hours after sham VD vs control (P <.05), which then returned to baseline levels at 24 hours. After undergoing VD, MCP-3 levels increased to 6-fold baseline values (P = .002) at 0 hours, with continued elevation in MCP-3 levels to 15 times control levels (P = .0003) at 24 hours. Conclusions MCP-3 is significantly over-expressed in the urethral tissues of both wild-type and obese mice immediately after any urethral manipulation. At 24 hours, the MCP-3 expression patterns become divergent between VD and sham VD in obese mice. With a greater degree of trauma, MCP-3 continued to rise at 24 hours, suggesting that the underlying obesity resulted in alterations in response to tissue injury, paralleling the degree of injury. Such associations warrant further investigation into the role of MCP-3 as a chemokine for stem cell migration, with implications for subsequent tissue repair mechanisms after birth trauma.