301 Scopus citations


The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (bHLH-PAS) protein ARNT is a dimeric partner of the Ah receptor (AHR) and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). These dimers mediate biological responses to xenobiotic exposure and low oxygen tension. The recent cloning of ARNT and HIF1 homologues (ARNT2 and HIF2α) indicates that at least six distinct bHLH-PAS heterodimeric combinations can occur in response to a number of environmental stimuli. In an effort to understand the biological relevance of this combinatorial complexity, we characterized their relative expression at a number of developmental time points by parallel in situ hybridization of adjacent tissue sections. Our results reveal that in general there is limited redundancy in the expression of these six transcription factors and that each of these bHLH-PAS members displays a unique pattern of developmental expression emerging as early as embryonic day 9.5.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-123
Number of pages7
JournalMechanisms of Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 1998


  • ARNT
  • ARNT2
  • Ah receptor
  • Ah receptor nuclear translocator
  • Basic helix-loop-helix-PAS
  • Dioxin
  • EPAS1
  • Endotheli al
  • HIF1α
  • HIF2α
  • HLF
  • HRF
  • Hypoxia
  • Hypoxia inducible factors
  • MOP2
  • PAS
  • PAS proteins
  • TCDD
  • Xenobiotic
  • bHLH-PAS


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