Exploiting Radiation Induction of Antigens in Cancer: Targeted Drug Delivery

Vaishali Kapoor, Abhay K. Singh, Calvin D. Lewis, Sapna Deore, Dennis E. Hallahan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Therapeutic antibodies used to treat cancer are effective in patients with advanced-stage disease. For example, antibodies that activate T-lymphocytes improve survival in many cancer subtypes. In addition, antibody–drug conjugates effectively target cytotoxic agents that are specific to cancer. This review discusses radiation-inducible antigens, which are stress-regulated proteins that are over-expressed in cancer. These inducible cell surface proteins become accessible to antibody binding during the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The lead antigens are induced in all histologic subtypes and nearly all advanced-stage cancers, but show little to no expression in normal tissues. Inducible antigens are exploited by using therapeutic antibodies that bind specifically to these stress-regulated proteins. Antibodies that bind to the inducible antigens GRP78 and TIP1 enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models. The conjugation of cytotoxic drugs to the antibodies further improves cancer response. This review focuses on the use of radiotherapy to control the cancer-specific binding of therapeutic antibodies and antibody–drug conjugates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3041
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

Keywords

  • Antibody–drug conjugate
  • Radiation therapy
  • Radiation-inducible
  • Therapeutic target

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