Experimental manipulations of self-affirmation: A systematic review

Amy McQueen, William M.P. Klein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

371 Scopus citations


The objective of this systematic review of studies using self-affirmation manipulations was to identify research gaps and provide information to guide future research. We describe study characteristics, categories of manipulations, and report effects on various dependent variables. Our search strategies yielded 47 eligible articles (69 studies). Manipulations varied by affirmation domain (values or personal characteristics), attainment (participant- or investigator-identified), and procedure (scale, essay, feedback, etc.). Most dependent variables were cognitive. Strong effects of self-affirmation were found for attitudes and persuasion/bias, but future work is needed for variables with mixed results including risk cognitions, intentions, and behavior. Suggestions and considerations for future research involving self-affirmation manipulations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-354
Number of pages66
JournalSelf and Identity
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2006


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