A technique of en bloc double-lung transplantation through a median sternotomy has been developed. Hypothermic circulatory arrest was used after surface cooling in 7 puppies (mean weight, 3.1 kg; range, 1.5 to 4.1 kg). A double lung block, consisting of the two lungs, distal trachea, the main pulmonary artery, and a large cuff of left atrium, was removed from weight-matched donors. After the arrest of the circulation by inflow occlusion, bilateral pneumonectomies were performed in the recipient. The donor double-lung block was then implanted with anastomoses at the distal trachea, the posterior left atrium, and the main pulmonary artery. All animals were successfully rewarmed and had excellent hemodynamic function and gas exchange for periods of up to 24 hours. If primate experiments with long-term survival confirm these initial results, this procedure may have a role in the treatment of patients with end-stage respiratory disease but acceptable cardiac function.