Exhaled Breath Analysis Using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry and Disease Severity in Heart Failure

Wai Hong Wilson Tang, Lily Tranchito, Chonyang Albert, Zeynep G. Gul, Frank S. Cikach, David Grove, Yuping Wu, Raed A. Dweik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are elevated in heart failure (HF). The ability of VOCs to predict long term cardiovascular mortality and morbidity has not been independently verified. In 55 patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), we measured exhaled breath acetone and pentane levels upon admission and after 48 h of diuresis. In a separate cohort of 51 cardiac patients undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), we measured exhaled breath acetone and pentane levels before and at peak exercise. In the ADHF cohort, admission acetone levels correlated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, r = −0.297, p = 0.035). Greater weight loss with diuretic therapy correlated with a greater reduction in both acetone levels (r = −0.398, p = 0.003) and pentane levels (r = −0.309, p = 0.021). In patients with above-median weight loss (≥4.5 kg), patients demonstrated significantly greater percentage reduction in acetone (59% reduction vs. 7% increase, p < 0.001) and pentane (23% reduction vs. 2% reduction, p = 0.008). In the CPET cohort, admission acetone and pentane levels correlated with higher VE/VCO2 (r = 0.39, p = 0.005), (r = 0.035, p = 0.014). However, there were no significant correlations between baseline or peak exercise acetone and pentane levels and peak VO2. In longitudinal follow-up with a median duration of 33 months, patients with elevated exhaled acetone and pentane levels experienced higher composite adverse events of death, ventricular assist device implantation, or orthotopic heart transplantation. In patients admitted with ADHF, higher exhaled breath acetone levels are associated with lower LVEF and poorer outcomes, and greater reductions in exhaled breath acetone and pentane tracked with greater weight loss. Exhaled acetone and pentane may be novel biomarkers in heart failure worthy of future investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1049
JournalMetabolites
Volume13
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • acetone
  • exhaled breath
  • heart failure
  • pentane
  • selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

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