Study Objectives To determine the association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and napping with subsequent brain β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in cognitively normal persons. Methods We studied 124 community-dwelling participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging Neuroimaging Substudy who completed self-report measures of EDS and napping at our study baseline and underwent [ 11 C] Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB PET) scans of the brain, an average ±standard deviation of 15.7 ± 3.4 years later (range 6.9 to 24.6). Scans with a cortical distribution volume ratio of >1.06 were considered Aβ-positive. Results Participants were aged 60.1 ± 9.8 years (range 36.2 to 82.7) at study baseline; 24.4% had EDS and 28.5% napped. In unadjusted analyses, compared with participants without EDS, those with EDS had more than 3 times the odds of being Aβ+ at follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44, 7.90, p = 0.005), and 2.75 times the odds after adjustment for age, age 2, sex, education, and body mass index (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.95, p = 0.033). There was a trend-level unadjusted association between napping and Aβ status (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 0.90, 4.50, p = 0.091) that became nonsignificant after adjustment (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 0.73, 4.75, p = 0.194). Conclusions EDS is associated with more than 2.5 times the odds of Aβ deposition an average of 15.7 years later. If common EDS causes (e.g., sleep-disordered breathing, insufficient sleep) are associated with temporally distal AD biomarkers, this could have important implications for AD prevention.
- brain imaging
- neurological disorders