Using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire–Revised in a longitudinal sample of infant siblings of autistic children (HR; n = 427, 171 female, 83.4% White) and a comparison group of low-risk controls (LR, n = 200, 86 female, 81.5% White), collected between 2007 and 2017, this study identified an invariant factor structure of temperament traits across groups at 6 and 12 months. Second, after partitioning the groups by familial risk and diagnostic outcome at 24 months, results reveal an endophenotypic pattern of Positive Emotionality at both 6 and 12 months, (HR-autism spectrum disorder [ASD] < HR-no-ASD < LR). Third, increased ‘Duration of Orienting’ at 12 months was associated with lower scores on the 24-month developmental outcomes in HR infants. These findings may augment efforts for early identification of ASD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1398-1413
Number of pages16
JournalChild Development
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022


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